Old town Vratnik


The National Monument consists of the ruins of the old city walls with bastions, gate towers and gates and movable heritage found at the archaeological site located in the Cantonal Institute for the Protection of Cultural and Natural Heritage and the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo.

Vratnik walls was surrounded by an area of ​​495,596 m², of irregular shape. The walls are about 2 m. Within the walls built five bastions: White bastion, Strošićka bastion, Yelow bastion, Bastion on a Ravne Bakije, Bastion on Zmajevac, three gate towers: Višegrad gatehouse, Gatehouse at Ploča and Gatehouse at Širokac and five gates and a few smaller gates.

Historical data


The medieval period

In the period between the late Middle Ages the territory of the great early medieval parish Vrhbosne is divided into several smaller parishes (districts or knežija). There are built in three late medieval city Teferić above Krupac, on the southeastern edge of the Sarajevo Field, Old Town Bulozi the city where today the White Bastion in Vratnik. With the Sarajevo field, in the territory of a monument to the early Middle Ages, the focus is at about the thirteenth century, transferred to the territory core of today’s city of Sarajevo. In medieval sources in present-day town center referred Square Utornik, and early Ottoman sources placename old borough. The oldest census Bosnian Sandzak is an old borough, entered as the old market. The third name that is encountered in Dubrovnik sources since the thirteenth century is Vrhbosanje.

The surrounding countryside, Brodac, known from vakufnama (1462), Isa Bey Ishakovića Kosevo, Radilović, Bilave (Bjelave), on the slopes along the right side of the Miljacka and Bistrik, Rock, Komatina, Žagrići on the northern slopes Trebevic, existed in the Middle Ages , as evidenced by the early Ottoman source – defters 1455

In the Middle Ages the area of ​​the White Bastion there was less mention the finding and describing travelers who passed Sarajevo in the sixteenth century. Also, early Ottoman sources indirectly indicate the existence of a fortress in Vratnik. The access lecture at the Academy of Science of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1977 Bejtić is presented assuming and made ​​a series of arguments about the early Ottoman sources, who mentioned finding Hodidid and activities pioneer of the Ottoman Empire in the parish Vrhbosna of the year 1435 concerning the city Vratnik, which was built in the late fourteenth century.


Ottoman period

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Until the penetration of Prince Eugene of Savoy in 1697, there was no need to build a new fort in the city. These attacks have shown that the fortress can not fit more 150 to 200 soldiers, and that any one can tend to about 400 civilians.

Its construction began during the Gazi Ahmed Pasha Rustempašić Skopljaka, who in 1727 was appointed to najmesnika in Bosnia. Ahmed- Pasha immediately began preparations for the extension of an existing fortifications. He decided to build walls that will enclose 450 houses and remain vacant land for so much more house. It has been planned to be a long wall clock walk, thick 2 yardstick, high 10 yardstick, and that the walls are constructed four bastions land. The construction started in 1729.

Four bastions whose construction started in this period are: The bastion on Jekovac, called Ahmed Pasha bastion, the people have called Yellow bastion; Strošićka bastion was named after the father of Ahmed Pasha, Rustempaša bastion; The bastion on Ravne Bakije was named Sultan Ahmed, and people called it the Arab bastion; At the top of the Čebedžija street, bastion on Zmajevac named Ibrahim Pasha Arnaut, and the people have called Arnaut bastion or bastion at the gate.

Since Ahmed Pasha moved from Bosnia in 1730, the construction was stopped or stalled. Construction continued vizier Hakim-oglu Ali Pasha, the winner in the battle near Banja Luka in 1739 of Prince Hidburghausenom, who that year winter in Sarajevo. When construction was aided by the ulema and people. In one of the legends about the construction of the walls returnee mentioned that the Hakim Pasha, saw in Sarajevo many cemeteries, ordered to take out all the stones and he went up into the walls.

All three gates, Vratnik, Širokac and Ploča, were built up in 1739.

Later, they built four bastions. It was probably 1816, when they began to repair the older walls. Chaumette de Fosseés, who ten years earlier in Sarajevo, described a system for the defense of Sarajevo in which mentions three small fortress in the shape of a square, surrounded by four towers built according to the old system of determining. They are associated with thick walls 2 and half to 3 feet, high 14 to 15 feet. The walls enclose a number of civilian houses. This is called a town or castle where a fortress, the most elevated, occupied one hill which is in a favorable position.

The city is thoroughly revised and extended in 1816, under the supervision of the state of the builders Halil Efendi. There are descriptions of fortifications, which seemed to originate from the period after the construction of the entire fortification (1816). According to this description, the fortress is very stretching, her walls are thick 2 catches, but no ditch. There are 12 batteries and the same tower in which it is set 80 medium guns.

After the abolition of captaincy, 1836, a review of all the cities in Bosnia. It was found that in Sarajevo is a large amount of different types of firearms, ammunition, maintenance tools and other military equipment.


Austro-Hungarian period

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Austrian troops entered in Sarajevo on 19 August 1878. The army has performed with the pasha hills to the north-eastern (on a flat-Bakiyev) Sarajevo fortress. Around 550 to 600 defense attorneys were gathered around this bastion where they have held two cannons. Yellow bastion they did hit the Austrian batteries. That day Sarajevo fort still held, although her guns were disabled, and 12.30 am, when the Austrians penetrated into it. About 14 hours, there was a struggle over the Yellow Bastion. Around 14:30 hours, the shooting stopped and Sarajevo was occupied.

Austrian authorities in 1889 were also restores the city. In 1886 began the construction of barracks at the site later Jajce barracks. This complex was completely different from building barracks Eugene of Savoy, which was built in 1913 and 1914. Name Jajce barracks was given in 1915 by the city of Jajce from which those in this barracks moved to a military hospital.

After 1945, the stretch between the bastion on a Ravne Bakije and Zmajevac, the Yugoslav People’s Army has raised the barracks, which now uses the Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina.





White bastion

16. pogled na Bijelu tabiju sa tabije na Zmajevcu

Represents higher point within the walls of the old city turnee and dominates the eastern natural entrance to the city. The location where the fort is located on the south side is almost inaccessible and provides extraordinary vistas.

Trial archaeological research in 1991 showed that the oldest part of the tower was built in the Middle Ages, late 14th or early 15th century and then rebuilt during the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian rule. The original fort had a rectangular base, measuring 75 x 50 m, with four square tower at the corners and the fifth above the entrance gate. After the arrival of the Ottomans in the castle garrison was stationed with the captain. In the later period it was constructed defensive complex that consisted of perimeter walls of one of the bastion and entrance tower, in which is embedded a small medieval fortress. The walls of the complex are preserved to a height of about 7.0 m. The maximum wall thickness is 1.40 m. The entrance to the bastion was on the north side. He was secured by one small tower, measuring 6.0 x 6.0 m. Inside the bastion, with the western and northern walls, were arranged accommodation for the crew and warehouses. Excavations at a depth of 0.35 m were discovered the remains of the octagonal shape with a side length of 8.0 m, which was built in the Ottoman period (1).

On the outside stone walls are visible loop holes. After the Austro-Hungarian rule, destroyed the building inside and flattened central area. Upgraded architectural complex consisting of a large number of areas, but that is recognizable today. It was built of large hewn limestone blocks correctly, and the window frames are made ​​of sandstone.

North of the entrance built one outbuilding, rectangular, measuring 15.0 x 7.0 m, which served as a munitions depot.

Strošićka bastion is located in the northwestern part of the walls. Basically a trapeze, a 367 m². Two parallel sides are long of 25 and 14 yards, and two others 18:21 m. It was built on steep terrain, and preserved height of the walls on the north side is 3.0 m, and the northwestern 8.00 m.

3. Žuta tabija

Yellow bastion was built of rough-hewn stone. It’s basically a polygon whose seven external pages long of 10 yards, and the eighth, facing north, 27.5 m long. The walls are 35 cm, and the preserved height of the walls is 7.5 m. On the north side there are stairs and a building for soldiers, and on the southwest side of a small Muslim cemetery. In 1878, he interrupted the ramparts which extended east of the bastion. On the west side until 1946 stood a gate, which was then destroyed in order to expand the road. The bastion was used during the Austro-Hungarian administration and was repaired in 1883 and 1903.

The bastion on a Ravne Bakije, as well as the bastion Zmajevac, located in the far northern part of the walls, in the zone of restricted access.


The gatehouse/gatehouses

The gatehouse at Ploča represents the old type of towers that served in the war for the defense, and in peaceful residential guards. Located within the walls turnee city. It was built of rough-cut limestone and travertine. The base is square with a long 10.15 m. In the middle of the aisle is covered by a barrel vault. The front door is moved to the inside passage. In front of them, on both sides of the walls of the passage, there is one niche depth of 0.70 cm. The inside passages are still two niches depth 1.20 cm. In the upper part of the tower is a room which can be used to wooden stairs. The tower has a wooden roof structure, hipped roof and shingle cladding.

1. Višegradska Kapija

Višegrad gatehouse is located within the walls turnee city, northeast of the White Bastion, on the site of Customs. During the war it was used as a defensive structure, and peace is likely to have a function customs that there had to exist. Construction technique is similar to that of the gate on the board. It is built of rough-cut limestone and travertine. It’s basically a square with sides of 10 m. Through the center of the building is a long passage 10 and 3.75 meters wide, with a vaulted roof. At the house once stood double oak doors, moved to the inside passage 1.68 m. Framed by the arch of precisely hewn stone. In front of the door, on both sides of the walls of the passage, there is one niche depth of 0.40 cm, a width of 1.05 meters and a height of 1.80 m. The interior passages are two niches length of 1.20 m and a width of 2.28 to 2.50 m. It has a wooden roof structure. The roof is hipped, covered with shingles.

The gatehouse at Širokac, unlike the previous two towers, was built inside the walls turnee city. Passing through the gate, 3.25 m wide, roofed by a barrel vault. Between 1862 to 1868. year during regulation road that led through the gates, street level was raised to 1.0 m. The gatehouse originally had three niches, two front doors and four inside, on both sides of the aisle. All niches are walled in 1903. The above passage is a room surrounded by walls of 1 m thick on which are arranged windows and loopholes. Until rooms were wooden staircase. Until 1919 and the gate had oak doors with metal frames.